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Dyeing Process basically discusses what you do with the dyes. There are today available latest and state-of-the-art dyeing methods that effectively colour the various substrates. This is a very critical operation carried out in the Dye houses in a series of steps. The pages here gives precious information regarding the various dyeing processes in different industries.
Dyeing Process » Batch Dyeing Process
Batch Dyeing Process Continuous Dyeing Process Semi-continuous Dyeing Process Pigment Dyeing Process

Some important parameters to be considered in Exhaust dyeing:

  • Liquor Ratio (textile that is dyed/water used in dyeing bath)
  • Dyeing Method (temperature/time curves; Double bath or single bath process in case of fiber mixtures)
  • Nature of Dyestuff, auxiliaries
  • Degree of exhaustion degree of dyestuffs
  • Number of rinsing bathes and nature of after treatments required
Batch Dyeing Process is the most popular and common method used for dyeing of textile materials. Batch dyeing is also sometimes referred to as Exhaust dyeing. This is because in this process, the dye gets slowly transferred from a comparatively large volume dyebath to the substrate or material that is to be dyed. The time taken is also longer. The dye is meant to 'exhaust' from dyebath to the substrate. In batch processes, textile substrates can be easily dyed at any stage of their assembly into the desired textile product. This includes fiber, yarn, fabric or garment. Some type of batch dyeing machines can function at temperatures only up to 1000oC. For example cotton, rayon, nylon, wool etc. can be dyed at 1000oC or lower temperatures. While polyester and some other synthetic fibers are dyed at 1000 Centigrade or even higher temperatures. There are three general types of batch dyeing machines. The first type is the one where there is circulation of fabric. Second type is the one where the dyebath gets circulated while the material that is being dyed remains stationary, and finally the third type where both the bath and material to be dyed gets circulated. Examples of dyeing machines that utilizes batch dyeing process are Beck, Jet, Jigs, Beam Package dyeing machines etc.

Batch Dyeing Process
Batch Dyeing Process
Image showing Popular machines utilizing the batch dyeing method illustrated above.

Optimizing the Batch Dyeing Process

For any dyers the ultimate dream is to get the maximum out of the process of dyeing, at minimal cost. For a batch dyeing process the following techniques can prove to be effective for optimum utilization.
  • Use machinery that are fitted with latest state-of-the-art automatic controllers of fill volume, temperature and other dyeing cycle parameters, indirect system of cooling and heating, innovative hoods and doors that lessens vapour losses.

  • Choosing the machinery that is exactly sized for the batch that needs to be processed. Also confirmation that it is operated exactly within the specified range of nominal liquor ratios for which it is designed. It has been seen that machines that are operated with a consistent liquor ratio while being loaded at 60 percent level of their nominal capacity gives optimum results. With yarn dyeing machines this level can stretch to even 30% of the nominal capacity.

  • Opting new machineries that adheres to the following requirements:
    • Liquor ratio that is low-or-ultra-low.
    • Complete in process separation of bath from substrate.
    • Mechanism that involves smooth internal separation of process liquor from the washing liquor.
    • Mechanical liquor extraction that brings the carry-over to minimum and improves washing efficiency.
    • A reduced cycle duration.

  • Replacement of conventional overflow-flood rinsing method with methods like drain and fill or other methods (for example smart rinsing for fabric).

  • Proper re-use of rinsed water for the next dyeing session.

  • Re-use of the dye bath if technical considerations allows.


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