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Titanium Dioxide
Ilmenite and Rutile are two minerals that are abundantly found in USA, Australia, India and South Africa. Australia alone produces about 40% ilmenite and 25% rutile in the world.
Physically Titanium Dioxide Pigments are found in white powder form. High obscurity is present in these pigment powder. These pigment powders have very good whiteness, very high covering capacity, and good retardation capacity.

Titanium
Due to these properties, the titanium dioxide pigments have a wide range of application and are considered valuable. These pigments are used in manufacturing of ink, plastic goods, paper, paints etc.

Common physical and mechanical properties of Titania (sintered titanium)

Property Values
Modulus of Rupture 140 MPa
Compressive Strength 680 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0.27
Dielectric Constant(1 MHz) 85
Shear Modulus 90 GPa
Micro Hardness(HVO .5) 880
Resistivity(25 degree C) 10 to the power 12 ohm.cm
Resistivity( 700 degree C) 2.5*10 to the power 4 ohm.cm
Dissipation Factor(1 M Hz) 5*/10 to the power 4
Dielectric Strength 4 KV/mm
Thermal expansion(RT-1000 degree C) 9*/10 to the power 6
Thermal Conductivity(25 degree C) 11.7 W/mk
Modulus of Electicity 230 GPa
Density 4 gm/meter cube
Porosity 0%

Applications of Titanium Dioxide

As sintered titanium has relatively poor mechanical properties, so its applications are constrained. But, it is used for a number of electrical applications. Titania is widely used as a pigment. As a pigment, it is used in powder form to exploit its optical properties.

Use of Titanium Dioxide as a pigment

The most common form of titanium dioxide as pigment substance is its powder form. As a pigment, it provides whiteness and opacity to paints and coatings, plastics, paper, inks, food, cosmetic and fibers. The most common form of titanium dioxide as a pigment is white pigment. This is because, it is very white and very high refractive index. The bright whiteness and high refractive index of titanium dioxide make it to become as an effective opacifier for pigments. It is also used as an opacifier in cosmetics, sunscreen, paper, paints etc.

Formation processes of Titanium Dioxide Pigments

By processing the naturally occurring rutiles or ilmenite minerals, these pigments are derived. Both, these two are rutiles and ilmenite, the ores of titanium dioxide.

Manufacturing technologies of Titanium Dioxide Pigments

There are two processes of manufacturing Titanium Dioxide Pigments. These two processes are:

Sulphate Process
Sulphate Process is the first process that was used to convert ilmenite into titanium dioxide. Some sulphate process plants have been built to produce a very big quantity of waste iron sulfate and to manufacture low quality products for most of the applications. Through the process, the pigments produced are called anatase. These pigments are used mainly used in the paper industry, ceramics and inks manufacturing.

Chlorine Process
In chlorine process, the chlorine reacts to synthetic rutile and form volatile titanium tetrachloride. Later on, this is oxidized to obtain iron chloride and other impurities. To produce 5-6 tonnes of titanium dioxide pigments, about one tonne of chlorine is needed. Chlorine process has been separated into another subprocess that is called Chloride Process.

Chloride process
This process requires to get processed from ilmenite into rutile form. It means to remove the iron components to obtain crude titanium dioxide that is also called synthetic rutile. Generally. To manufacture 1 tonne of Titanium dioxide pigments, 1.6 tonne synthetic rutile is required.


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